THE MUONG ETHNIC GROUP IN LAC SON, HOA BINH (PART 1: HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS)
Hoa Binh is a gathering place of various ethnic minorities, especially the residents here consist mainly of the Muong ethnic group. People still transmits orally the saying about the four most famous villages in the community of the Muong people: “First Bi, second Vang, third Thang, forth Dong”. Muong Bi is now belonging to Tan Lac district, Muong Vang is Lac Son district, Muong Thang is locating in the two districts Cao Phong and Ky Son, and Muong Dong is Kim Boi district. Throughout the process of formation and development, the Muong culture has grown its diverse and special characteristics with bronze drums, Gongs, folk songs and “Mo” (ceremonial songs), etc. Additionally, the Muong people also possess the distinct features, including dress, language, custom and tradition which all create the unique beauty of Hoa Binh culture. Lying in the common cultural space of Hoa Binh province, Lac Son is famous for its traditional valley Muong Vang.
DISCUSSION ABOUT PROBLEMS OF PRESERVING AND PROMOTING QUAN HO BAC NINH FOLK SONGS
Quan Ho Singing has been one of the cultural and spiritual products of Kinh Bac region’s people a long time ago. It is also one of the factors contributing to the traditional and cultural Vietnamese treasure. Through different historical periods, although undergoing ups and downs, Quan Ho is still existing and developing with the preservation and development of generations in Kinh Bac. Accordingly, Quan Ho folksongs are recognised and registered on the representative list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. In this paper, the author will present and discuss some opinions about preserving and promoting issue of this heritage in the current period.
INVENTED TRADITION THROUGH MOTHER LIEU SYMBOL IN VIETNAMESE CULTURE
Princess Lieu Hanh (Liễu Hạnh Công Chúa) or Mother Lieu (Mẫu Liễu), which is an important symbol in the Mother Goddess worship belief in Vietnam, has some relations to the beliefs in Mother Goddesses of Three and Four Realms. On Thursday 1st December 2016, the UNESCO acknowledged the Vietnamese people’s belief in the Mother Goddesses of the Three Realms on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity. To understand more about the origin and formation of Mother Lieu symbol, we should begin with the study of dong cot (the witch belief) through Eric Hobsbawm’s perspective to figure out the procedure for the creation of tradition. Furthermore, following Marx’s views on religion sector, the “spiritual service” in the current Vietnamese society will then be mentioned in this article
A VIEW FROM MUSIC TO VIETNAMESE CULTURAL VALUES
Along with being one of the cultural factors, music plays an important role in cultivating people’ souls and emotion as well. In the integration period, the conception of Vietnamese culture and national identity must be placed as the first priority when a person wants to become a global citizen. However, in recent years, the domestic music has faded out and constituted a deviation from ancestral cultural values. Even worse, these restrictions have been even prevailing over the public’s sense of music. A question here is how to lead the musical life in general and musical stage in particular to the right path in accordance with the Communist Party’s direction of cultural development. In doing so, we can preserve our culture and national identity together with promoting creativity in arts sector. It is believed that the cultural managers and the artists are responsible for answering that question.
EDUCATE YOUNG GENERATION ABOUT THE VALUE OF MARINE AND ISLAND CULTURE
The sea is seen as a holy symbol to the Vietnamese people for all eternity. The values of marine and island culture thereby need to be preserved and promoted. Thus, it is essential to raise the awareness of Vietnamese young people about these cultures. Propagandizing and educating the young generation about marine-island cultural values will contribute to the development and protection of the sea and the islands in the current context.
TRUC LAM YEN TU ZEN SECT – A PRODUCT OF ACCULTURATION
Truc Lam Yen Tu Zen sect was founded based on the three sects of Zen as Ti Ni Da Luu Chi, Vo Ngon Thong and Thao Duong with the combination beliefs and indigenous culture. Not only did the Truc Lam Zen sect reconcile the Indian and Chinese Buddhist doctrines but it also inherited the elements of indigenous folk culture which were all acculturated to shape the Vietnamese Buddhist sect matching with age.
CURRENT SITUATION AND SOLUTIONS TO ENHANCE THE MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS OF TOMBS AND TEMPLE OF KINGS OF LY DYNASTY IN TU SON TOWN, BAC NINH PROVINCE
Until now, the increasing promotion of tombs and Do temple’s value has shown the great care of both authorities from Bac Ninh province and Tu Son town People's Committee. After establishing, the management sub-committee of Do temple has taken the initiative in effectively conducting such activities as surveying, making an inventory of the remaining relics and restoring architectural blocks. Besides, the values have also been promoted through various activities like communication and welcome visitors… Particularly, during the organization and management process, the sub-committee has ever more focused on bringing the Relic values to the community. In recent years, the management process has been deployed in various fields, namely, designing plan to preserve and foster the values; propagandizing and disseminating the Vietnamese law on cultural heritage at Relic site; undertaking the professional activities in order to maintain and develop the value of historical and cultural relics.
WEDDING RITUALS OF THAI ETHNIC PEOPLE IN THANH HOA PROVINCE
In the spiritual life of Vietnamese people in general and Thai ethnic group in particular, wedding is considered as a significant issue. Therefore, the Thai ethnic wedding always includes various kinds of rituals which profoundly impact on the residents’ daily life. By the participation and contribution of all people, those rituals thereby have become the custom of the community. In this paper, the author mentions about the wedding rituals of Thai ethnic group in Thanh Hoa province in order to highlight the similarities and differences in comparison with other ethnic groups in Vietnam.
STYLES OF CREATION IN FOLK PAINTINGS “MECHANICS AND CRAFTS OF THE ANNAMITES”
“Mechanics and crafts of the Annamites”, which was produced by the French scholar Henri Oger together with some Vietnamese artists, is a study that works on the material civilization in An Nam a hundred years ago. The paintings were printed with the woodblock printing technique and recorded various facets of the life of Vietnamese people in Red river delta region in the early 20th century. The entire work vividly characterized the traditional styles of Vietnamese folk woodcut paintings.
PHOENIX SYMBOL IN HOANH SON COMMUNAL HALL’S SCULPTURE
The phoenix is a special symbol belonging to the four sacred animals in Vietnamese culture. Within the development process of Vietnamese fine arts history, phoenix patterns have been paid much attention to shape artfully and own a powerful life force. Through the Vietnamese artists’ fertile imagination and skillful hands, the phoenix symbol has become a familiar but sacred topic in our architecture, sculpture and traditional decorations. Particularly, phoenix is one of the prominent symbols in the sculpture system of Hoanh Son structure, which created the symbolic representation of this communal hall.
CURRENT USE OF TEACHING MATERIALS IN TEACHING ELECTRONIC KEYBOARDS FOR FULL-TIME STUDENTS MAJORING IN MUSIC EDUCATION
Material development activity, which greatly influences in the educational quality, has always been a crucial factor in the training progress of higher education institutions. Particularly, the higher education reform today is demanding to renew both the content of materials and the academic program in a professional way. There are numerous special characteristics exist in the context of training art education in general and music education in particular and, therefore, more attention, and investment should be given to material development to enhance the quality of Music Education tranining.
TRONG QUAN SINGING’S PERFORMANCE IN THE NORTHERN MIDLAND REGION
In the Vietnamese folk song treasure, Trong quan singing is a popular genre, which is done in the form of antiphonal sentimental dialogues between young men and women. This folkloric art form has been familiar with the Vietnamese living in the Northern midland region for thousand years. Generally speaking, along with music and lyrics, the performance factor is seen as a vital and indispensable part contributing to the formation of folk songs nowadays. The performance of Trong quan singing is the combination of attributes showing the typical culture of each geographical location. That is to say, the performance of Trong quan singing varies from region to region. The differences of performance even happen among the provinces locating at the cultural space called “Ancestral Land – Hùng Kings”. Through examination, the performance of Trong quan singing in the Northern midland region is recognized to retain numerous distinct features which conclusively reflects the aspects of the ancient Vietnamese culture. At the same time, many differences between Trong quan singing style at the provinces of the Red River Delta and other regions have been found.
THE ART OF WORDING IN HO SAO
Ho Sao (Sao Calls), together with other types of performance such as Don Ca Tai Tu, Cai Luong, Hat Tuong and Hat Boi, had created a whole picture about Southern folk arts. Ho Sao can be seen as a unique folk-culture heritage, which is rich of hype in its content and full of interesting call-and-response performances. All such characteristics have successfully highlighted both the mentality and characters of Southern people. When performing, Ho Sao shows the audiences its own style of wording, sometimes hypes, sometimes exaggerates which are conveyed by a simple but humorous way. Until now, there are only two popular kinds of Southern music which have been known among the Vietnamese, they are Don Ca Tai Tu and Cai Luong. Although Ho Sao is no longer preferred but its value of content and spirit have still been remained adequately in Southern people’ minds.
THE VALUE OF DANCING IN TRADITIONAL CHÈO THROUGH THE EXTRACT “SUY VAN GIA DAI” (SUY VAN FEIGNS MADNESS)
Singing and dancing are believed to play important roles in folk performance art, especially in Chèo - a form of traditional musical theatre in Vietnam. Similar to folk dance, Chèo dance indicates the daily life of the ordinary people in the countryside. This paper will analyze in depth the three characteristics in the extract of popular opera “Suy Van feigns madness”, namely, the content, the ways of expression and the body language of main characters. In doing so, the author hopes to demonstrate the representative values of dancing in traditional Chèo.
RENEW IN TEACHING METHOD OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION ANALYSIS SUBJECT FOR THE STUDENTS MAJORING IN MUSIC EDUCATION AT THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
Musical composition analysis is considered as one of the most difficult subjects with a high-level synthesis. In analyzing a variety of pieces of music from the preschool songs to such large-scale musical compositions as operas, ballets and symphonies, a thorough musical knowledge must be the very first requirement. In doing so, students need to equip themselves with knowledge of Basic Music Theory, Harmony, Remix, Polyphony and Music History… Being good at analyzing musical composition will enable students to gain the necessary skills and insightful knowledge not only in music sector but also in other art fields.
TEACHING GUITAR FOR STUDENTS OF ART EDUCATION AT THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
Nowadays, being a good music teacher is a mutual desire of the majority of students enrolling in Music Education major. They all want to have the great ability in effectively promoting cultural and art movements as well as the students’ activities at schools. Accordingly, the students studying Music Education have to be versatile to sing, dance, be a master of ceremony, especially play musical instruments. Besides, not only do the musical teachers need to be expert at the organ but they also ought to know well how to play the guitar. Based on these important objectives, the Thai Nguyen University of Education made a decision to teach Guitar as an optional subject for its students.
VIETNAMESE PIANO WORKS IN MUSIC TRAINING
Presently, piano is considered as one of the most popular instruments in the world and in Vietnam as well. It enables the performers to execute the music and express their rich and various emotion. When comparing to most other instruments, only the piano can lead the listeners to an imaginary world which is full of emotional inspiration and creativity. The piano thereby is included not only in the curriculum of Piano departments but also in the teaching program of all other departments of music training institutions as an effective supporting subject.
CONTENT ACCULTURATION OF NORTHERN CAI LUONG STAGE (FROM THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY TO 1945)
Being stimulated by the touch of Western culture from the early 20th century to 1945, the Vietnamese culture in general and the Northern Cai Luong art in particular had changed profoundly. The acculturation about Cai Luong content in the North could be seen through the reality, the people and the central topics it aimed to reflect. It started exploiting the contemporary topics to accurately and variously describe the real life. Furthermore, the subjects – all levels of society, were portrayed with the approach of realism. Particularly, the Northern Cai Luong art had creatively absorbed the romanticism from the West to assert its ego and self-perception. This acculturation had created the great motivation for Cai Luong, the national folk opera, when experiencing the “Renovation and Reform” process. In the light of advanced ideas from the French bourgeoisie, the Northern Cai Luong art had found the flame of resistance to protect good humanitarian values as well as unhesitantly criticizing the obsolete principles of the feudal system and negative impacts of colonial society.
PROFESSIONAL CAPACITY SITUATION OF MUSIC AND FINE ART TEACHERS IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
To meet the demands of education reform, developing professional capacity for art teachers is a strategic and urgent mission. Some problems about the real situation of teaching art in Vietnamese schools will be identified in this paper such as the unreasonable allocation of work to teachers, the limited capacities of teachers in their fields… We may thereby reconsider the art teacher training process in educational institutions to properly develop the professional capacity of both music teachers and fine art teachers through approaching the new curriculum.
EVALUATING SCHOOL ART TEACHERS BASED ON COMPETENCY STANDARDS
In the context of current educational reform, innovating the education based on standards is becoming a general trend in many countries in the world, including Vietnam. In order to evaluate the teaching quality, recruit and foster the art teacher resource for the future, building the competence framework for art teachers as the basic criterion is one of the necessary directions in the current period.
DISCUSSION ABOUT ART EDUCATION IN SCHOOL CURRICULUM
Theoritically, art education must equip students with basic knowledge and skills. On the other hand, it has to cultivate students’ inspiration to the art activities and the beauty of surrounding environment. Through art education lessons, students’ talents and natural abilities could be discovered and motivated suitably. All such merits will contribute to individual and family well-being and facilitate the development of schools and community as well. In order to achieve these important objectives, this paper will closely investigate the teaching issues of art education at primary and secondary schools. Based on the findings, some suggested solutions will be offered to ehance the quality of art education in accordance with the orientation of capacity development.
LITERARY TRANSLATION THOUGH THE CASE OF “TRUYEN KIEU”
Based on the plot of a Chinese novel published in Late Ming and Early Qing titled “Kim Van Kieu”, Nguyen Du wrote “Truyen Kieu” (The tale of Kieu) which is a verse-novel written in “Nom” - the ancient ideographic vernacular script of the Vietnamese language. This article will review several Chinese translations of “Truyen Kieu” as well as suggest the required elements of becoming a translator. That is, knowing the writing system of both languages and thoroughly understand the close-knit relationship between the intention of the author and culture to precisely express into the target language.
CONTEMPORARY VIETNAMESE NOVELS ON THE GENRE BOUNDARIES
In Vietnam, the premises that appearing the changes in the notion of novel nature have emerged from the late 20th century. This could be clearly seen in such classic novels in the Doi Moi period (after 1986) as: Thoi xa vang (A time far past), Ben khong chong (Wharf of widows), Manh dat lam nguoi nhieu ma (Land of many people, many ghosts), and Than phan cua tinh yeu (The destiny of love)… However, it was not until the early 21st century with a variety of experiments and achievements did a complete transformation about the novels’ gist and speciality occur. There were a lot of new generation authors whose novels could be mentioned as Nguyen Binh Phuong with Thoat Ky Thuy, Nhung dua tre chet gia (Young children died old) and Ngoi (Sit); Thuan with Chinatown, Paris the 11st August; Mac Can with (Knife-throwing board); Ta Duy Anh with Thien than sam hoi (Repentant angel), Di tim nhan vat (Go to look for characters); Doan Minh Phuong with Va khi tro bui (And in the ashes)… All the drastic changes in length, topic and autobiographical methods, especially including of the notion about autobiography, reality, have led to the change of novels’ content and structure and even broken the traditional genre boundaries.
TRENDS IN QUALITY ASSURANCE THROUGH THE PERIODS OF WORLDWIDE AND VIETNAM HIGHER EDUCATION RENOVATIONS: INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
This paper refers to some the quality assurance models the quality assurance agencies through the periods of higher education worldwide in general and Vietnam quality assurance models in particular and makes some effective suggestions on improving, enhancing as well as developing the quality assurance activities of Higher education Insitutions in Vietnam.